Pavlo Khazan. Promotion of the green waste management system in Dnipropetrovsk region

26 мая 2011, 19:19
громадський діяч, еколог
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Green technologies’ implementation for integration of the environmental and social concerns to the state policy is one of the priorities for contemporary Ukraine in terms of European integration process.


A challenge towards sustainable Europe is the Waste Policy in Ukraine. It is well known, that more then 30 billion of tons of waste is already accumulated in the country or 50 thousands tons per 1 square kilometre. The target area of the work is Dnipropetrovsk region, which is one of the most unsustainable territories in Europe, where accumulated more than 9 billion of tons of industrial waste. The region produces 42% of black metallurgy, contains 14% of chemical industries and produces 8% of machine building in Ukraine. Municipal landfill is a common practice for different cities and rural territories in Ukraine. [1]

According to modern definition green technologies is the application of the environmental science to conserve the natural environment and resources, and to curb the negative impacts of human involvement. Sustainable development is the core of green technologies. When applying sustainable development as a solution for environmental issues, the solutions need to be socially equitable, economically viable, and environmentally sound. [2, 3]

Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying waste to dispose of it, and this remains a common practice in different regions of Ukraine. Poorly-managed landfills create a number of environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of toxic liquids. Other products of organic waste are methane and carbon dioxide which cause the serious risk of dangerous climate change. At the same time advanced green technologies are not popular in Ukraine.

The methods to calculate pay-back time and do cost benefit analysis are not commonly used. Another product of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. This gas creates problems, kills surface vegetation, and moreover it is a greenhouse gas.

In that conditions it is necessary to develop multi-sectoral activity for promotion of the green waste management system in Dnipropetrovsk region. Promotion of sustainable way of living in terms of implementation of the environmental national legislation and development of regional strategies and policies is required. Citizens should to be more concern with environmental protection, sustainable production and consumption, recycling, waste management and energy saving.

The purpose of the work is to create the favourable environment for development of the green waste management system according to the modern concept. The concept in terms of waste minimisation includes reducing, reusing and recycling. It is directed to extract the maximum practical benefits from products towards minimum amount of waste.

One of the essential strategic part of the concept is Extended Producer Responsibility, which promotes the integration of all costs associated with products throughout their life cycle, including disposal into the market price of the product. This means that the enterprises are required to be responsible for the products after their useful life as well as during manufacture. Polluter pays for the damage caused to the environment – this is Polluter Pays Principle – waste generator has to pay for its appropriate disposal. [4]

Talking about the strategy of recycling we have to define what kind of recycling should be developed? The process of extracting resources or value from waste is generally referred to recycling as recover or reuse the material. There are different methods by which waste is recycled: the raw materials may be extracted, and the calorific content of the waste may be converted to electricity.

The process of extracting resources or value from waste is generally referred to as recycling, meaning to recover or reuse the material. There are different methods by which waste material is recycled: the raw materials may be extracted and reprocessed, or the calorific content of the waste may be converted to electricity.

Figure 1. Waste management technologies options

We would like to describe the energy recovering ways. In the figure 1 the least favoured and the most favoured options are shown The energy content of waste products can be utilised by using them directly as a combustion fuel, or indirectly by processing them into another type of fuel. Recycling through thermal treatment ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating, to fuel for boilers to generate steam and electricity in a turbine. Pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal treatment where waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability. [4, 5]

Physical reprocessing refers to the widespread collection and reuse of everyday waste materials. These are collected and sorted into common types so that the raw materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins or sorted directly from mixed waste streams.

Biological reprocessing is important component of the system. Organic waste materials (plant material, food scraps, paper products) can be recycled using biological composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. In addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be used for generating electricity.

The activity of the work should combine scientific, industrial and public work. Investigation on waste management market in the region will be targeted to implementation of the recycling technologies on the regional level. Drafting proposals for regional waste management program will be a result of the research.

The research is the essential part of the work. It includes investigation on how to decouple waste increasing (in all sectors) from economic growth and put more emphasis on waste prevention and re-use and how to secure the investment in infrastructure needed to divert waste from landfill, cost benefit analysis and the development methods to calculate pay-back time for investments. Environmental benefit from investment, to recycling of resources and recovery of energy will be investigated as well. [5]

Another part of the work is promoting waste recycling for consumers by increasing level of knowledge of local community. We prove that both business and individual households will have the opportunity to reduce their own waste, purchase products and services that generate less waste and reduce environmental impacts.

Capacity building, training, discussions, advocacy and expertise are common methods for raising awareness of all sectors, including government. Local and regional authorities should be engaged into the process to tackle unsustainable patterns with policy instruments using UK good experience, information and skills in preparation and implementation strategies and policies. Local and regional government will enable the compliance with international agreements (Landfill Directive) and Ukrainian national legislation on waste management. As a long term target for our local authorities could be providing convenient recycling services for their residents and commercial customers and advice on how to reduce waste. [4, 5]

Involving management of industrial enterprises has to broad their vision on possible environmental-friendly development of their enterprises, enable to participate in different programmes and projects on waste management and recycling. Important component of the work is developing partnership between Ukrainian and UK enterprises. Industrial enterprises have to make products using more recycled materials and less newly extracted raw materials. They have to produce products that are less wasteful and take responsibility for the environmental impact of their products throughout their life. This includes reducing of packaging. [6, 7, 8]

Authorities, public concerned, experts and business form Ukraine and from UK should be involved through participation in the events, investigation process and negotiations, where stakeholders’ interests will be determined for further effective collaboration to develop large-scale industrial and building projects.

Figure 2. The waste management system in UK

What outputs and outcomes of the work will we achieve? Increased waste prevention and re-use, enhanced investment in waste management infrastructure, established recycling of resources and recovery of energy, Improved recycling services for public and commercial customers, involved UK & Ukraine different parties (authorities, public concerned, experts and business), achieved effective collaboration for developing large-scale industrial and construction projects.

We also taking into account key risks: unstable political situation in the City Council, City Administration, absence of clear vision of the local authorities concerning development of the waste management, rapid increasing of the lands cost, conflicts between regional and local authorities, different approaches of regional and local government regarding the waste taxes, absence of clear tenders procedures on waste market, different interests and opinions of citizens concerning waste management issue.

Nevertheless we are confident that only green technologies are the key principles for governmental policy of the waste management in Dnipropetrovsk region as well as in Ukraine. Its promotion and implementation will support Ukraine in the European integration processes.

Concerning waste management policy in Europe, Environment Commissioner Stavros Dimas said: «Uncontrolled disposal of waste and untreated urban waste water present serious hazards, which is one of the reasons rules have been adopted by the EU to ensure the highest levels of protection for citizens and the environment.” [8].

Pavlo Khazan

References

1.Методические подходы к выбору стратегии устойчивого развития территории. Под научн. Ред. А.Г.Шапаря. Днепропетровск, 1996.
2.http://wikipedia.org. Wikipedia. The free encyclopedia, 2009
3.http://zeleni.biz. Ukrainian innovative company Green Technologies, 2009
4.Waste Strategy for England 2007. Executive Summary. Published by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. London, 2008
5.Consultation on the Incentives for Recycling by Households. Published by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. London, 2007
6.Sustainable development of Prydniprovya region. Strategy, indicators and action plans. A.Lytvynenko, P.Khazan, O.Osborne, J.Savage, O.Angurets. MELP/West Den. Dnipropetrovsk, 2003
7.Програма дій „Порядок денний на ХХІ століття” / К.: Інтелсфера, 2000
8.http://europa.eu. Official portal of European Union, 2009

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ТЕГИ: Хазан,Khazan
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